The birth of a child is the happiest family event. The first months of the baby's life are the most important period, when before the crumbs a long and fascinating way of growing up to a conscious little man opens. He will have to learn a lot about the world around him, so young parents should create all the conditions for the proper development and acquisition of vital skills.
A set of skills and the development of boys and girls up to a year by month
|Skills||Useful tips and tricks for parents|
|In the first month, the baby learns to be outside the mother’s womb, so he spends up to 20 hours a day in a dream, and eats the rest of the time. By the end of the first month begins to pay attention to the toys, and the first color, which distinguishes - red. Also, babies begin to be attracted by ambient sounds, but newborn reflexes still remain:|
Developed children have the ability to hold the head independently.
|The main goal is to create conditions of increased comfort for the baby: the right temperature regime, personal contact is to hold hands, talk, sing lullabies, play.|
The first "revitalization"
|The kid begins to spend more time in the waking state - up to 50 minutes. Visual and auditory abilities are improved - now he can see objects at a distance of 0.5 m, distinguish the voices of parents. Also holds the head in an upright position, turns over in the crib on its side. Infantile reflexes fade. Emotional background expands.||To help your child develop emotionally, you need to make the baby laugh as often as possible - the first smile will appear. To talk with him, then he will begin to respond to the as yet incomprehensible words with the first sounds: “aha”, “abu”, “aha”, “gugu”.|
Continuing the revival
|Mental, physical and emotional skills are noticeably developing.||The child makes the first attempts to turn himself over and rise on the handles, so do not leave him alone on the bed in order to avoid falling from injury.|
|For this period of development for the child is characterized by a sense of fear of losing mom. In 4 months it is worth paying as much attention and love to the baby as possible.|
|Parents should tell the child as many verses as possible, describe in detail the plots of the pictures, promoting the development of speech skills. You can begin to teach the first words: "mom", "dad", "woman".|
Study of the world
|As the child begins to crawl, you need to remove all unsafe objects from the zone of reach.|
Control your own body
|The active development of fine motor skills requires careful monitoring of what is in the baby’s hands, since small parts can easily get into the mouth, nose, and ears. To stimulate cognitive interest, it is necessary to describe in detail the surrounding things, to correctly name the body parts.|
|Already at this age, children can say the first meaningful word, so you need to talk with them as often as possible, supporting the process with simple entertaining games - “ku-ku” or “palms”.|
Agility and increased activity
|Independent attempts of the child to climb on a chair or sofa should be made under the strict supervision of parents. When playing with plasticine, it is necessary to ensure that he does not pull it into his mouth.|
Agility and increased activity
|Independence in all its manifestations must be encouraged - children of this age love praise, which serves as further motivation for learning everything new.|
|To consolidate positive habits in terms of polite communication, it is important to ask the child to say "hello", "bye", "thank you" for forming a habit.|
From infancy to childhood
|If earlier parents had already tried to teach the child to the pot, at the age of 12 months the baby may already begin to ask himself to “get out” of the diapers.|
What should be able to children under 5 years old
At the age of 0 to 5 years, the child lives the most important stages of development, when the formation of personal qualities, important skills. In order for him to receive the right primary education and be able to behave politely, it is important to constantly engage with him - play, develop physical culture, speech, fine motor skills, emotional sphere, logical thinking.
|1-2 years||Logical thinking||Play with cubes, fold turrets, show research interest by parsing objects.|
|Speech skills||Speak simple words, know the names of all family members.|
|Social development||To be able to correctly name the body parts, faces.|
|Household and household skills||To go to the toilet on the pot, get up and walk on my own, drink from a cup, understand and react to the instructions of the parents, imitate the behavior of others.|
|Developmental benefits||Puzzles, Alphabet, Alphabet, cards, coloring, stencils, cubes.|
|2-3 years||Logical thinking||The first acquaintance with arithmetic, to perform 2-3 consecutive actions, to show craving for drawing, designing.|
|Speech skills||Pronounce phrases of 4-5 words, be aware of the instructions of adults, know the simplest children's songs, poems.|
|Social development||Distinguish between vehicles.|
|Household and household skills||Self-descend and climb stairs, dress, undress, use a pot, move backwards, keep balance on the crossbar, be able to handle scissors, be trained in hand hygiene.|
|Developmental benefits||Cards with numbers and geometric shapes, game associations, collections of poems, podleshek, patters, cards-drawings: animals, fruits, vegetables, vehicles, applications.|
|3-4 years||Logical thinking||To be able to count to three, show numbers on fingers, operate with the concepts of "many-few", "high-low", etc., distinguish between a circle, a square, a triangle, have the skill of comparing objects in shape, color, size, make up of a pair of things on a characteristic basis, to find similarities and differences in objects, to exclude unnecessary things, to memorize a chain of pictures and words, to be able to work with concentration on a task.|
|Speech skills||To perceive and describe images, formulate sentences of 5-6 words, distinguish signs of objects, be able to form groups of them.|
|Social development||To distinguish between domestic animals, birds, fish, insects, trees, flowers, berries. Have a basic understanding of the materials from which the objects are made. To distinguish the time of day, the phenomena of nature.|
|Household and household skills||Self-dress, undress, use stationery items for creativity, draw primitive images in the form of points, lines, circles, paint figures, know the rules of hygiene.|
|Developmental benefits||Cards with the score, video lessons on the account, double puzzles, workbooks in mathematics, games with dice, recipes, music games, the first encyclopedias about animals and insects, books about the seasons, a set of children's dishes, plasticine, sets "Collect yourself ".|
|4-5 years||Logical thinking||Distinguish sides and directions, expand knowledge of geometric shapes, correlate objects with numbers when counting, be able to write numbers, be able to fold objects according to the design principle, formulate answers to the questions: "Why?", "Is it possible?", "For what?" , pick the opposite words.|
|Speech skills||Build sentences of 5-8 words, a common vocabulary of at least 1000 words, distinguish body parts of people and animals, be able to call the subject by signs, understand the meaning of prepositions, maintain dialogue, know the first information about yourself: name, age, place of residence, use past tense in speech.|
|Social development||To distinguish vegetables and fruits, to know when they ripen, where they grow, to be aware of how to move insects, to be able to correctly name young animals, to know the main signs of each season.|
|Household and household skills||To be able to tie shoelaces, button up buttons and zippers, draw without tearing the pencil from the sheet, paint the images, observing the borders of the drawing. At this age, you can first acquaint the child with the alphabet of a foreign language.|
|Developmental benefits||Coloring pages with connecting dots, writing in numbers, triple puzzles, math workbooks, puzzles, children's educational magazines, reading aids, counting, didactic games with colored letters and pictures, Encyclopedia "Ambient World", the game "Tic-tac-toe", books for children on anatomy, cards with the alphabet of a foreign language.|
What does Dr. Komarovsky say about the development of children
Dr. Komarovsky, a well-known pediatrician throughout the world, a specialist in the study of health issues and the formation of family relations. A lot of parents listen to his opinion, he writes books, speaks on television, even runs his YouTube channel. Studying the process of growth and development of the child, Evgeny Olegovich put forward several main points.
- The manner of behavior is closely associated with well-being - there is no causeless baby crying or crying. However, the habit of solving problems associated with any discomfort can result in an addiction.
- Comfortable conditions created for the child in the period of 2-3 months of his life will affect the further development of his abilities to adapt to the environment.
- Parental attention is a much more powerful factor in shaping health than going to pediatricians.
- In order for a child to be truly happy, inquisitive, active, his training should be carried out using educational books and games, because didactic children's materials are compiled for the purpose of hobbies, “pulling” from everyday realities.
- The issue of re-education, retraining is a practically unresolvable goal. To begin to form positive qualities and a manner of behavior that is correct from the very beginning of thinking about what is happening around the child. And the application in the educational process of extreme measures - severe punishments, it is better to completely exclude. Interestingly, parenting is much better with fathers than mothers.
Should I worry if there is a deviation from the norm?
The discovery of the surrounding world, so bright and versatile, for a child is a source of enthusiastic, amazing impressions. Many parents blame themselves if they notice that the child lags somewhat behind their peers in development. However, it has long been proven that such circumstances in rare cases arise due to the influence of hereditary factors or errors in child care.
The complex process of the formation of children's skills and abilities is individual for each growing man. Even with average age standards of development for a certain stage of maturation, the formation of completely healthy children may not correspond to these “calendar calculations”.
The development of social skills and emotional background
Social communication skills, the expression of feelings and emotions largely depend on the temperament of the child - calm or active, but the strongest factor in their formation are living conditions. Bad qualities, bad habits or addictions are not inherited. An unfavorable situation can be corrected by a pediatrician who is able to identify and fix the problem in time. Specialist intervention is especially necessary in case of impaired motor and neuropsychic development.
From what age to write down children in sections and circles
Indispensable assistance in the development of abilities or talents of a child can be provided by the parents themselves, by writing him into a creative circle or in the sports section. Childhood - a suitable period of life to search for new hobbies, when energy flows over the edge.
In preschoolers, the manifestation of creative ideas is characteristic, they are not shy about reciting the poems of their own composition, singing songs, dancing carelessly. They still do not know the frameworks that would constrain their impulses, so you shouldn’t blame the child’s desire to realize themselves creatively. It is important to encourage any undertakings, even if the first drawings will be “Kalyaka-Malyaki”, and additional classes at home, conducted, of course, if desired, will only spur interest in certain activities.
Many sports clubs willingly take children even at the age of 2-3 years, and it’s not worth the time to decide to give the child to professional sports, this will have a positive effect on his overall physical development.
Up to 5 years, visiting the pool is an entertainment event, and at 7-8 years old you can already think about “preparing for the Olympics”.
Children are able to successfully master foreign languages from an age when they are just beginning to learn to speak. Susceptible attitude to everything new extends to any speech.
The development of children occurs in an individual way, with its own pace, achievements, mistakes. There is no guarantee that any delays in the formation of skills in a child, unlike successful peers, are deviations from the norm. However, consultation with an experienced pediatrician or neurologist will never hurt. Doctors will be able to identify and fix possible problems in time.