What is hardening and how it is held

Hardening is a set of measures aimed at strengthening the body's resistance to adverse external conditions, immunity, improving thermoregulation, raising self-esteem, strengthening the power of the spirit. During tempering procedures, the protective barrier is increased several times, and upon the occurrence of critical conditions, a person is protected and easier to cope with illnesses and everyday difficulties.

Types of hardening, which is the most effective

The hardening activities at home do not require any huge financial investments. Everything connected with air, water and the sun is available and efficient.

Air baths

The easiest, common, but no less effective form of hardening, available all year round. They are:

  • Cold (temperature 12-14 ° C).
  • Moderate (temperature 14-20 ° C).
  • Warm (temperature 20-30 ° C).

Begin hardening air baths with warm temperatures in the absence of wind. The duration of the first sessions is 10 minutes, followed by a gradual increase in time. It is necessary to observe the principle of contrast, for which it is necessary to remove clothes, in order to create the maximum area of ​​contact of the body with cool air. Can be combined with games, energetic movements.

If health permits, cold baths are allowed at a temperature of 7-10 ° C.

Water treatment

Water is the most important factor in human existence. Temperature effects with a certain drop have a beneficial effect on the body. Hardening water helps to cope with stressful situations, accelerates metabolic processes, improves muscle and blood vessels tone. A person's perception of the world changes. He becomes more calm, cheerful, vigorous, efficient.


The gentle form of water hardening. You will need a small towel. It is moistened in water of a certain temperature and begin to rub the body until a pleasant sensation of heat begins to spread. For the first procedures, water is taken at 22 ° C or slightly above 30 ° C. Then, every 2 or 3 days, reduce the temperature by 1-2 degrees to 12 ° C and less.


It is possible to pass to douches in a month of rubdowns. The impact on the body is the strongest. The water temperature for the first sessions should be higher than for rubdowns, somewhere around 30 ° C. Then it is gradually reduced to +19 ° C and below.

Swimming in open water

The most effective and affordable type of hardening is swimming in open water, which must be treated with caution after a break in the winter-spring period. It is necessary to wait until the water warms up to at least 20 degrees. Begin with 3 minutes, gradually increasing the time spent in water up to 15 minutes, not allowing hypothermia.

Cold and hot shower

The procedure alternating cold water with hot.

Sun baths

They have a particular beneficial effect on the immune system. However, these procedures are treacherous: being in the open sun it is easy to get burns on the skin. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the time frame, wisely choosing part of the day (for the procedures, the morning sun or evening is suitable from 16 hours). It is better to take baths not in the open, but in the shade of the trees.

Walking barefoot

Training begins in the summer, and smoothly into the winter. In cold weather, the duration is first shortened, and after adaptation it is increased.


It is an excellent hardening option, but it should be used with caution, because after warming up it is diving into a cold pool. It is not a force for every organism.

Thermal control of the body and hardening

Thermoregulation - internal mechanisms that maintain body temperature at a certain level. This feature helps the body not to overheat when intense loads or high ambient temperatures, does not allow to die from hypothermia.

As soon as there is a signal from outside, for example, the temperature in the street drops, inside us processes of heat production begin, which prevents us from freezing. As soon as the temperature around starts to rise, the process slows down.

Physical thermoregulation is divided when heat is consumed as a result of human activity. And chemical thermoregulation - the formation of heat during the strengthening of metabolic processes in the body.

The main role in maintaining a stable body temperature is assigned to the skin. This sensitive system instantly reacts to all changes inside and outside. Skin receptors transmit information deeper to the vessels. In the heat, they expand, produce sweat for cooling. In the cold taper.

In addition to the skin, thermal control are involved in:

  • The muscular component of the intestine.
  • Sweat glands.
  • Sebaceous glands.
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue.
  • Veins of the pulmonary (small) circle of blood circulation.

A hardened person works much better with all systems, and the body copes more easily with temperature changes and transfers physical activity. The thermoregulation system of such an individual is more perfect.

Step-by-Step Hardening Instructions for Adults

  1. A conscious decision and a positive attitude. Hardening should become a way of life, which means you will have to revise the regime, habits, attitudes.
  2. To start the procedure, choose a warm season. You must be healthy: not a cold, without exacerbation of chronic diseases. Adjust the sleep mode, review the diet.
  3. Pick the appropriate option for hardening. Not everyone can tolerate water treatments, especially dousing with cold water. In the presence of diseases of the respiratory system and heart, it is necessary to dwell on milder types of procedures. Cold water spasms are very dangerous for these pathologies.
  4. Gradually increase the intensity of the load. Do not pour ice water on yourself from day one. First it should be rubdown. The temperature decreases smoothly, the time increases gradually.
  5. A complex approach. If you temper in the morning and disappear in the bar over a glass of beer in the evening, there will be no point in it. Change your attitude to yourself, your lifestyle.
  6. If you do not tolerate exposure to cold water at all, start with air or sun baths, with charging without clothes in front of an open window. After a while, go outside to the park, to the stadium. Combine with walking barefoot, but gradually.
  7. Strengthen the spirit. The mood should only be optimistic.

Where to start hardening children

Regular tempering procedures allow the child's body to adequately perceive weather disasters, especially lowering the temperature. Hardened children are less likely to get sick, more easily tolerate attacks of viruses.

A child, unlike an adult, is difficult to assess his feelings, so parents need to carefully monitor the reaction of the child’s body and follow a number of rules. Hypothermia is unacceptable and fraught with serious consequences.

Preschool children

  1. Consult a pediatrician.
  2. Start with air procedures. They suit everyone, even babies. This is the easiest and safest method. It includes: walking, airing, proper selection of clothes, walking barefoot.
  3. When mastered the air, you can go to the water procedures. Begin with rubdowns. This type of hardening includes washing with cool water, a shower with alternation of cold and warm. If the child is healthy and cheerful, the next step will be pouring, bathing in a pond.
  4. Sun baths For young children, it is to stay in the shade of trees, away from direct rays, with the obligatory wearing of a headdress. In the open sun you can stay in the early morning or in the evening, first no more than 5 minutes, gradually increasing the time.

School children

  1. The main rule is gradualness. The child should not feel discomfort.
  2. At the beginning of hardening, use water not lower than +24 ° C, bringing to +15 ° C.
  3. Procedures should be a daily system, without gaps. Exclude only days of illness.
  4. Start with a rubdown. First, with a wet towel, they affect the upper parts of the body, wipe and rub to a slight reddening. Then, also done with the stomach and legs. For the child, the procedure time is up to 4 minutes.
  5. After mastering these procedures, go to the douche.

IMPORTANT! In water treatments, the main thing is the intensity of the stimulation, not the duration.

Video guide Dr. Komarovsky

Opinions and reviews of doctors about hardening

Experts point to the positive effect of hardening, but they also warn about contraindications.

Positive sides:

  • Strengthening immunity.
  • Training of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Acceleration of metabolic processes.
  • Antiallergenic effect.
  • Activation of the mechanisms of rejuvenation of the body.
  • Freedom from diabetes, skin diseases, sciatica.
  • Stabilization of the nervous system, strengthening the spirit.
  • Antidepressive effect.
  • Acceleration of blood flow.
  • Cleansing the body.
  • Reduced body weight.
  • Increased lung capacity.
REMEMBER! Hardened people are much less likely to get sick, pathogenic microorganisms survive worse in their bodies.

Before the start of rehabilitation with the help of tempering procedures, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination. There are diseases in which "winter swimming" is life threatening and only harmful. Among them:

  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Bronchial or cardiac asthma.
  • Inflammatory processes in various organs and tissues.
  • Any tumors.
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  • Violation of blood vessels of the brain.
  • Alcohol or drug intoxication.
  • Allergy to low temperature.

Useful tips

  • The intensity of exposure to cold should be short-term. Immersion in an ice-hole or bath for only a few moments has a healing effect, so you need to accustom yourself to “winter swimming” from 25 seconds. And maintain it throughout the year. In the second year, you can increase the immersion to 1 minute, and the maximum time spent in cold water for 2 minutes. To this person comes after 3 or even 5 years after the start of hardening.
  • It is better to start with hardening with air.
  • The second stage should be a rubdown, then a douche.
  • With the onset of heat find an opportunity to walk barefoot, especially in dew.
  • In the summer swim in open ponds.
  • With the onset of cold weather, continue hardening activities, for example, intensively rub with snow. Start with the face, neck, then chest, abdomen, arms. Spend only 12-15 seconds for the whole procedure.
  • Be careful when hardening children. Do not allow long-term overcooling or overheating in the sun, do not wrap up much.
  • Set a personal example for your child and do all the procedures together. This will increase the hardening efficiency.

A person trained in low temperatures is ill less often, gets in good physical shape, becomes balanced, emotionally stable, self-confident. There are many life plans and a great desire to implement them.


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